Cardea biology-gated transistors are built with patented Field Effect Biosensing™ (FEB) – a breakthrough digital technology that provides direct insight to biology.

Read our peer-reviewed publication about our technology in Nature Scientific Reports:
How Does Field Effect Biosensing Work?
FEB combines the capabilities of Graphene Field Effect Transistors (GFETs) and Biological Field Effect Transistors (BioFETs) into one.

Inherently digital, silicon transistors are the building blocks of modern electronics. They amplify electrical signals and enable switching between “on” and “off” states for digital applications, such as computing and transmitting cell phone signals.
GFET: Taking It to The Next Level
While transistors function well in electronics, silicon itself is unstable in air and water – causing transistors to perform poorly when placed in the conditions necessary to measure biology. GFETs eliminate this problem. A GFET has one simple design change from a typical transistor: silicon is replaced with graphene, a nanomaterial that’s stable in air and water. This takes the capabilities of transistors to a new dimension, one where the transistor can be exposed to the natural environment around it.

BioFET: Making It Biological
But what good is exposure to biology if the transistor can’t interpret and provide data on what is happening? That is where BioFETs come in. In a BioFET, the “on” or “off” state of the transistor is controlled by the binding interaction of molecules. When the capture-molecules bind to the sample analyte-molecules, the change in charge distribution on the transistor surface alters the current flow through the device. This triggers the transistor to switch from “off” to “on”. This means the biology of relevance becomes an integrated part of the computer circuit!

FEB: Bringing It All Together
Cardea’s biology-gated transistors combine the best of GFET and BioFET into Cardea’s digital technology called Field Effect Biosensing (FEB). With FEB, graphene transistor are used to measure molecular interactions. Graphene is considered a “super material” with high electrical conductivity that makes it extremely sensitive to even the smallest of electrical changes. Hence, it has an exceptional application in detecting molecular interactions which currently depend on less sensitive, non-portable optical techniques such as Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR), Bio-layer Interferometry (BLI), Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA), Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), and Sequencing.​

FEB in Action
Some of our Innovation Partners building “Powered by Cardea” tools and products:

Nanosens combines Cardean transistors with patented CRISPR-Chip™ technology to power the world’s first DNA search engine: the Genome Sensor™. CRISPR-Chip uses CRISPR-dCas9 as its capture molecule on the graphene transistor to search genomes for specific sequences of interest. The CRISPR-Chip furthermore allows the world’s first real-time quality control tool for CRISPR gene editing.
Nanomed uses Cardea’s proprietary and patented FEB technology to power their Nanomed Agile® tool. Agile is a personal “small molecule binding confirmation tool” used for drug discovery and development in the biotech and pharmaceutical industries.​​